Translation is the communication of the important of a source-language text past times way of an equivalent target-language text. Whereas interpreting undoubtedly antedates writing, translation began exclusively afterward the appearance of written literature; at that spot be partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (ca. 2000 BCE) into Southwest Asian languages of the 2nd millennium BCE.
In the other hand, translation is activeness that lead maintain human relationship amongst changing language, beginning linguistic communication to target language.
Translators ever lead chances inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom in addition to usage into the target-language translation. On the other hand, spill-overs lead maintain imported useful source-language claques and loanwords that lead maintain enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped substantially to shape the languages into which they lead maintain translated.
According to Larson, at that spot be 5 ways to essay a translation:
1. Comparison amongst the beginning text
One of the top dog purposes of the comparing is to banking company check for equivalence of information content. The comparing is really a self – check; that is, it is done past times the translator. Of course, it could live done past times someone else who knows both languages good in addition to knows translation principles. After checking to live for certain that all of the information is there, the translator volition brand approximately other comparing of beginning linguistic communication in addition to receptor linguistic communication texts, looking for whatever problems.
2. Back – translation into the beginning language
A 2nd way to banking company check a translation is past times having someone else, who is bilingual inwards the beginning in addition to receptor languages, brand a dorsum – translation of the translated text into the beginning language. This mortal takes the translation in addition to writes out the important he gets from it dorsum into beginning language. He should create it without having read the beginning text used past times the translator. This dorsum translation volition permit the translator know what is existence communicated to this person. In translating, i uses natural in addition to clear forms; inwards dorsum – translating, literal forms are used inwards monastic enjoin to demonstrate upward the construction of the translation existence dorsum – translated.
3. Comprehension checks
Good comprehension testing is the primal to a proficient translation. The purpose of this essay is to run into whether or non the translation is understood correctly past times speakers of the linguistic communication who lead maintain non seen the translation previously. It is designed to discovery out what the translation is communicating to the audience for whom it is intended. This type of essay involves having people retell the content of the translation in addition to reply questions virtually it. Comprehension testing is done amongst persons who are fluent speakers of the receptor language. These people should live ordinary people from diverse classes of the society. Testing should live done amongst immature people, middle aged, in addition to older people. It should live done amongst the to a greater extent than highly educated in addition to amongst the newly literate, if the translation is intended for all.
The purpose of naturalness tests is to run into if the cast of the translation is natural in addition to the manner appropriate. This testing is done past times reviewers. After the reviewer has checked for clarity in addition to naturalness, he may also banking company check for accuracy, if he knows the beginning linguistic communication well. He volition compare the translation amongst the beginning text looking for omissions, additions, or whatever changes of meaning. Once i time to a greater extent than the reviewer should brand careful notes for the translator.
5. Readability testing
The translator in addition to tester may create readability tests. These tests are done past times asking someone to read a component of the translation aloud. It should live a consummate section; that is, a unit. As they read, the tester volition notice whatever places where the reader hesitates. Also, if he stops in addition to re –reads the sentence, this should live noted equally it indicates approximately occupation inwards readability.
6. Consistency checks
As the translation comes nigh to completion, it is rattling of import that consistency checks of diverse kinds live made. Some of these lead maintain to create amongst the content of the translation in addition to others lead maintain to create amongst the technical details of presentation. All of those who are testing the translation should live warning for reading problems related to formatting equally good equally content.
The translating procedures, equally depicted past times Nida (1964) are equally follow:
a. analysis of the beginning in addition to target languages;
b. through study of the beginning linguistic communication text earlier making attempts interpret it;
c. Making judgments of the semantic in addition to syntactic approximations. (pp. 241-45)
Direct Translation Techniques are used when structural in addition to conceptual elements of the beginning linguistic communication tin flame live transposed into the target language. Direct translation techniques include:
Borrowing is the taking of words direct from i linguistic communication into approximately other without translation.
A calque or loan translation (itself a calque of German linguistic communication Lehnübersetzung) is a phrase borrowed from approximately other linguistic communication in addition to translated literally word-for-word.
A word-for-word translation tin flame live used inwards approximately languages in addition to non others subject on the judgement structure: El equipo está trabajando para terminar el informe would interpret into English linguistic communication equally The squad is working to complete the report.
a. A placement test
Generally the start essay a educatee translator volition sit down for at university. The purpose of the placement essay is to assort the bird of incoming candidates to a translation or whatever other science – based program. According to the results, the subdivision may lead maintain to implement remedial or intensive courses. Placement tests are a practical way to assess the development inwards incoming students talents from i twelvemonth to the next.Candidates to a translation or whatever other science – based program. According to the results, the subdivision may lead maintain to implement remedial or intensive courses. Placement tests are a practical way to assess the development inwards incoming students talents from i twelvemonth to the next.
b. Diagnostic tests
Tests designed to pick out educatee problems earlier it is also belatedly inwards the twelvemonth or the semester to create so. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 diagnostic essay is given thence equally to facilitate the student’s learning, to encourage students to right areas of weakness. Some progress tests may also serve a diagnostic function.
c. Progress tests
The most frequent tests instructors give. The objective of a progress essay is to create upward one’s hear if the students lead maintain mastered textile that has already been taught. Progress tests are most oft “open mass “in translation classes; in addition to students lead maintain access to notes, databases, dictionaries, etc. Quizzes, graded homework, brusk projects, weekly or bi – weekly tests are all types of progress tests.
d. Achievement tests
Meant to create upward one’s hear if the educatee has met the class objectives. If students were placed inwards the right class level, benefited from the results of diagnostic tests in addition to progress tests, the achievement essay should reaffirm their acquisition of skills necessary to advance to a farther bird of study. Their results should live examined closely thence equally to evaluate the program’s strengths in addition to weaknesses.
There are 2 farther traditional types of tests: formative in addition to summative.
1. Formative assessment
Takes identify during the pedagogy menses in addition to is designed to guide instructors to object their teaching, if demand be. Progress tests also autumn into this category, equally create diagnostic tests. Feedback from formative assessment must live communicated to the educatee equally shortly equally possible. Students react to a greater extent than positively to formative assessment if the results are analyzed past times the instructor in addition to the teaching manner or bird content is altered if demand be. This is called the launder dorsum effect. Formative assessment is the ongoing physical care for instructors in addition to students utilisation to approximate the success of the syllabus in addition to to prepare for the 2nd type of assessment, the summative.
2. Summative assessment
Contrasts amongst formative assessment start of all past times its purpose. The purpose of summative assessment is to attribute value, in addition to for that argue it is oft to a greater extent than quantitative than the qualitative formative assessment. It also occurs at the midpoint and/or terminate of pedagogy thence equally to create upward one’s hear the extent to which syllabus objectives lead maintain been met. Achievement tests, lastly exams, oral or written, in addition to enquiry projects are examples of summative assessment. Grades or marks from summative assessment oft provide a footing for passing a educatee or for repeating a class.
Remember that testing the bird is equally much a reflection of teaching equally it is of the students’ knowledge. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 essay may evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction. Teaching should live inwards a way that prepares students to apply what they lead maintain learned inwards whatever situation, essay or normal bird work. As inwards the instance of many academy courses presently, if y’all are teaching amongst a squad of teachers inwards what is called a “multi – section” class in addition to are called upon to write a mutual examination for your students equally good equally the other instructors’ students, retrieve the following:
1. Contribute items that lead maintain non been covered on your ain bird quizzes, this is non a fair evaluation of your students inwards comparing to the others.
2. Consult amongst the other instructors inwards advance equally to what is to live covered on the exam.
3. Set upward a mutual grading scale equally good equally the mutual exam.
4. Meet in addition to telephone substitution papers to brand for certain grading is consistent. For example, enquire that all your colleagues pick out iii papers for discussion: the highest, the average in addition to the lowest grades. Exchange the papers in addition to hash out objectively.
5. You may fifty-fifty experiment amongst exchanging entire bird sets of papers for genuinely objective grading.
It is tempting to give a text in addition to but asking that it live translated. If the objective inwards testing is to evaluate the overall might of the educatee in addition to thence this is an appropriate method. However, instructors may want to essay specific skills.
The hardest component of writing a essay is deciding how much textile tin flame live tested inside a for certain fourth dimension frame. When y’all bear out activities inwards class, approximate the amount of fourth dimension your bird needs to consummate the work.
One way to essay basic noesis on a theme is to give students terminology inwards the beginning in addition to their equivalences inwards the disorder. Students are in addition to thence allowed 4 minutes, or to a greater extent than (or less) depending on the length of the listing to discovery the right match. In monastic enjoin to essay the student’s might to apply the terminology, y’all may give the students sentences that must live translated inside a for certain fourth dimension limit.
For a higher – bird course, provide 2 translations of the same text, or component of one, in addition to enquire students to evaluate the strengths in addition to weaknesses of each. Testing volition likely never live the high dot of a teaching experience, but nosotros tin flame seek to brand our tests equally creative equally possible thence that students acquire both from their fourth dimension inwards our classes in addition to our testing sessions.
There are 5 ways to essay a translation:
1. Comparison amongst the beginning language
2. Back – translation into beginning language
3. Comprehension tests
4. Naturalness and
5. Readability tests
6. Consistency checks
For testing in addition to evaluation inwards the translation classroom, knowing the important of measurement, evaluation, reliability, in addition to validity is of peachy importance. There be dissimilar types of assessment that translation students volition accept during their fourth dimension inwards university: a placement test, diagnostic tests, progress tests, in addition to achievement tests. There are 2 farther traditional types of tests: formative in addition to summative. In the subdivision of essay items, at that spot are provide or gratis – response items, the 2 option items, multiple selection items, dictation in addition to dicto – comp. Assessment in addition to grading are based on norm – referenced assessment in addition to criteria – referenced assessment. Norm – referenced assessment judges i student’s functioning based on the balance of the students inwards their group. It shows how the candidates are competing against each other. Criteria – referenced assessment involves evaluating whether the educatee tin flame perform a essay or not; thence the instructors are non concerned amongst the comparing amidst students. Also the instructor assessment, self – assessment, in addition to peer assessment are practical in addition to useful inwards translation classroom. Moreover, testing in addition to evaluation inwards an academic atmosphere, in addition to instance studies of tests for translation courses are 2 matters which should non live neglected inwards the translation classroom.
Find the synonym of the italic words afterward that interpret to Indonesian language.
AN ANTIQUE CAR
Mr.Basuki is a rattling pop mechanic inwards his town. When he was thirty-five years old, i of his fellows gave him a rattling former machine equally his birthday gift. The machine was rattling dingy in addition to rusty, but its engine was non thence bad in addition to worked good enough. Mr.Basuki was thence pleased to lead maintain such an former car. He knew that the machine was thence antique that it could live a rattling precious object if he fixed in addition to repainted it. One twenty-four hr menses he took his machine out of the garage in addition to and thence said to his wife, “I’m going downtown to buy approximately spare parts in addition to pigment for this car.” He arrived at a still route afterward a few kilometers from his house, but all of a abrupt his machine stopped. Mr.Basuki got out, opened the bonnet of the car, in addition to checked its engine, but he didn’t discovery anything incorrect amongst it.
His caput was nether the bonnet for quite a long time. Then a immature human being ran to his machine in addition to started pulling off i of the cherry lights at the back. Of course, Mr.Basuki was rattling surprised, seat his caput up, stared at the immature man, in addition to shouted angrily,” What are y’all doing?!”
The immature human being answered,” You tin flame bag the pieces at the front. I’m going to accept the ones at the back.” (Adapted from Bahasa Inggris Teknologi Industri 2)
Farhady, H., Jafarpoor, A., Birjandi, p., (1995) Testing linguistic communication skills from theory to practice. Tehran: SAMT.
Heaton, J. B. (1990). Classroom testing. Longman, New York.
Larson, Mildred L. ( 1984 ) . Meaning – based translation. University press of America.
Kunnan, Antony John: (2000). Studies inwards linguistic communication testing. California State University, Los Angeles.