The Listening Activity
The activeness inward teaching listening consists of 3 phases. According to Underwood (1989) inward Prace (2009: 24) the phases are called pre-listening, while-listening as well as post-listening stage / follow-up activity.
1. Pre-listening stage
It would non survive fair towards students to depict them direct into the listening without introducing the topic or the type of activeness they are going to piece of work on, since inward the existent life at that spot are non many situations when people are supposed to hear amongst having no thought what they are going to hear thence that is why students should survive given a substantial pre-listening support. This pre-listening back upwards volition aid them to acquire to a greater extent than confident as well as successful. Underwood (1989) inward Prace (2009: 24) claims that at the really kickoff of the land listening activity, the students should survive helped to concentrate on what they are going to hear.
According to Rixon (1986) inward Prace (2009: 25) at this stage, teachers should adjust such challenges that volition give the students reasons for fifty-fifty bothering to hear to the listening text. All this involves outlining the setting as well as giving background data but it is non advised to say the students also much otherwise the whole listening volition survive spoiled. At this stage it tin survive extremely useful to enquire the students to predict missing data or the context.
Underwood (1989) inward Prace (2009 : 25) declares that pre-listening chore tin consist of a diversity of activities, which tin aid the instructor to focus the students’ minds on the topic yesteryear narrowing downwards the things that the learners anticipate to hear as well as receive relevant previous noesis as well as already known language, including:
Ø the instructor providing background information;
Ø the students read something relevant to the listening text;
Ø the students facial expression at to a greater extent than or less pictures;
Ø discussing the topic or province of affairs to the listening text;
Ø a inquiry as well as respond session to the listening text;
Ø written do to the listening text;
Ø following the laid of instructions relevant for the while-listening activity;
Ø Students hollo back nigh how the while-listening activeness volition survive organized.
Yagang (2001) inward Prace (2009: 25) presents a release of tasks for pre-listening stage that tin enable the students to hit noesis that is needed for the listening task. This gained noesis gives the students confidence that is necessary for successful listening. The tasks include:
Ø Starting a give-and-take nigh the topic (possibly based on visuals as well as titles). In this form of do students are asked to brand a give-and-take nigh a laid topic.
Ø Brainstorming. In this activeness the students are asked to predict vocabulary that is associated amongst the laid topic as well as the instructor is supposed to write them on the board. Another shape of brainstorming activeness tin survive making heed maps.
Ø Game. H5N1 overnice instance of warm upwards activeness where either the students or the instructor mimes the words as well as the residue of the shape is supposed to gauge the meaning.
Ø Guiding questions. Teacher either writes or asks questions that volition aid students amongst the listening passage.
Other aspects of pre-listening activities are to gear upwards materials that are authentic, affair that tin simulate the existent life situations; give the students clear instructions thence that they know what to create e.g. if they are asked to respond a inquiry teachers convey to specify whether the students tin utilisation yes/ no answers or to a greater extent than complex answers. There are also a lot of factors affecting the choice of pre-listening activities such every bit the time, cloth as well as shape ability. All these factors mentioned higher upwards influence the whole procedure of lesson planning.
2. While-listening stage
This stage, every bit it arises from the name, contains activities done yesteryear the students during the listening passage. The aim of activities done during this stage is to aid the students to grab the original important of the text thence that they convey plenty data to translate the text. Teachers convey to indicate out that at this stage students should non worry nigh interpreting long as well as hard questions as well as subsequent production of complex answers, but they should survive concerned amongst demonstration of the of import data (Rixon, 1986 inward Prace, 2009: 26)
One of the most of import functions of while-listening activities is to acquaint the audio of the target language. This presentation enables students to prepare their listening comprehension skills as well as it also serves every bit a model of their speech. When choosing a while-listening activeness teachers see several criteria. Underwood (1989: 46) points out that expert while-listening activities aid listeners abide by their agency through the listening text as well as construct upon the expectations raised yesteryear pre-listening activities.
The next paragraph provides to a greater extent than or less examples of while-listening activities. (a) comparing of the listening passage amongst the pre-listening stage; (b) next instructions-learners are given a laid of instructions as well as are supposed to exhibit whether they understood them yesteryear a physical response; (c) filling inward exercise-students hear to a dialogue as well as are asked to fill upwards inward the missing information; (d) spotting the difference- learners brand responses solely when they hear something dissimilar to what they already know nigh the topic or the speakers; (e) data transfer- learners are asked to fill, forms, lists, maps or plans; (f) sequencing- students are given a laid of pictures as well as they convey to set them into the right order; (g) data search- during the listening learners focus on specific items; (h) Matching- students are asked to gibe items according to the recording. It is also of import for teachers non to forget to give their students immediate feedback every bit it would survive quite problematic, non solely for the instructor but also for the students, to verbalise nigh the listening tasks during the next lesson. This postponed feedback would hateful replaying or repeating the listening text as well as it could survive hard for the instructor to regain the students’ attention. The immediate feedback tin survive done yesteryear providing them amongst the right answers, yesteryear hollo for them to verbalise the solutions over inward small-scale groups or yesteryear both.
3. Post-listening stage
During the follow-up activities students utilisation their noesis gained during the previous stage, while-listening stage, for completing the exercises.
According to Underwood (1989) inward Prace (2009: 28) to a greater extent than or less other ground for a follow-up activeness tin survive a reflection on why to a greater extent than or less students convey non been successful or missed to a greater extent than or less parts of the text. H5N1 expert activeness for finding a solution to this work tin survive a give-and-take nigh the problematic parts of the listening text; teachers tin depict students’ attending to diverse lexical forms or features of the audio system. When dealing amongst to a greater extent than or less grammer forms teachers tin abide by showing the examples of the grammer structures inward the listening text extremely useful every bit this shows their educatee the natural shape as well as usage. But on the other manus it would survive problematic to bargain amongst the whole text again. Thirdly, during the follow-up stage learners tin survive given a possibility to hollo back nigh the mental attitude of the speaker or speakers since this tin survive flora really hard yesteryear the students. One of the other reasons for incorporating the follow-up stage is to broaden students’ noesis nigh specific topics. This could survive done yesteryear a determination making or hollo for them to limited their views.
There are several activities that tin survive used inward the follow-up stage:
Ø Problem solving as well as decision-making tasks- where students are trying to abide by out a solution for a work from the recording.
Ø Role play- students tin survive asked to crusade out newly acquired things.
Ø Summarizing- students tin survive asked to summarize a floor they heard. This activeness tin survive linked amongst work solving.
Ø Written work- students tin survive asked to write the halt of the story.
Underwood (1989) inward Prace (2009: 29) presents that when selecting follow-up activities teachers ought to see the next factors every bit they may abide by to conk on students’ attending difficult:
Ø Whether the instructor has plenty fourth dimension for a post-listening activity
Ø How much linguistic communication piece of work the instructor wants to create inward connectedness amongst the listening text.
Ø Whether the post-listening piece of work should consist of speaking, reading or writing
Ø Whether the post-listening stage tin survive done every bit pair/group piece of work or private work
Ø Possibility of doing the activeness every bit homework
Ø The marking of motivation as well as a possibility to increase students’ motivation
Underwood (1989) inward Prace (2009: 29) argues that although teachers are non ever able to organise lessons as well as conduct suitable materials but they convey to a greater extent than or less opportunities to give their students listening experience.