This article presents an empirical study that investigates the utilisation of vocabulary knowledge inwards listening comprehension alongside 115 advanced Danish learners of English linguistic communication as a unusual linguistic communication (EFL). The dimensions of depth in addition to breadth of vocabulary knowledge (measured past times the Vocabulary Levels exam in addition to the Word Associates Test) were found to last significantly correlated alongside listening comprehension (measured past times a listening exam from the Cambridge certificate of proficiency inwards English) in addition to could predict one-half of the variance inwards the listening scores. This study hence provides empirical evidence that vocabulary knowledge is an of import factor for successful listening comprehension inwards EFL. This study reports on such an investigation that explored the contribution of depth in addition to breadth of vocabulary knowledge to advanced L2 learners’ listening comprehension inwards English.
Although a considerable number of studies possess got found vocabulary knowledge to last a important determinant of reading success inwards the L2 in addition to possess got established specific vocabulary size in addition to lexical coverage targets for adequate comprehension (e.g., Hazenberg & Hulstjin, 1996; search has addressed such issues alongside regard to listening (e.g., Bonk, 2000). The introduce study is hence motivated past times a lack of empirical inquiry on the utilisation of vocabulary knowledge inwards listening comprehension in addition to past times the ensuing require to explore the extent to which dissimilar dimensions of learners’ vocabulary knowledge volition contribute to L2 learners’ listening success.
Breadth of vocabulary knowledge is defined as the size of a learner’s vocabulary-that it, the number of words for which the learner has at to the lowest degree some knowledge of meaning. Meara (1996a) argued that vocabulary size is the basic dimension of a learner’s lexical competence in addition to emphasized that learners alongside large vocabularies are to a greater extent than proficient linguistic communication users than learners alongside smaller vocabularies. In contrast, depth of vocabulary knowledge is defined as the character of lexical knowledge that reflects how good a learner knows private words or how good words are organized inwards the learner’s mental lexicon. The introduce study addresses vocabulary knowledge from the dimensions of breadth in addition to depth inwards the vocabulary in addition to operationalizes depth of vocabulary knowledge as the grade on a modified version of the Word Associates Test.
In low-cal of the fact that give-and-take recognition is a prerequisites for spoken linguistic communication comprehension, it may last hypothesized that learners; knowledge of words volition last strongly associated alongside their listening success. However, knowledge of a give-and-take is no guarantee that the give-and-take volition truly last recognized inwards continuous speech. Moreover, recognizing most of the words inwards the input does non guarantee comprehension, as many other factors likewise impact L2 listening comprehension.
In general, studies possess got found important correlations betwixt vocabulary size in addition to reading comprehension tests inwards the make from .50 to .85 for EFL learners from dissimilar proficiency levels (e.g., Henriksen, Albrechtsen, &Haastrup, 2004; Laufer, 1992; Qian, 1999, 2002; Staehr, 2008). Although theresults from these studies emphasize that vocabulary knowledge is a determining factor for reading success, such findings precisely cannot last transferred to listening; that is, it cannot last assumed that vocabulary knowledge plays an as important utilisation in addition to that identical vocabulary size or lexical coverage thresholds volition apply to listening comprehension.
The notion that at that topographic point is a departure betwixt the utilisation of vocabulary inwards reading in addition to inwards listening is suggested past times Mecartty (2000), who found lexical knowledge to last to a greater extent than highly correlated alongside reading than alongside listening inwards a study of Castilian as a L2. Bonk (2000) investigated the human relationship betwixt vocabulary knowledge in addition to listening comprehension inwards EFL but attempted to determine a lexical coverage threshold which it would last impossible for learners to make adept listening comprehension. The results betoken that the human relationship betwixt vocabulary knowledge in addition to listening comprehension is complex in addition to past times no way an unequivocal 1 in addition to that farther investigation into threshold of lexical coverage in addition to vocabulary size for adequate listening comprehension is necessary.
The study was designed to address the next inquiry questions:
- To what extent are vocabulary size in addition to depth of vocabulary knowledge associated alongside listening comprehension?
- To what extent does depth of vocabulary knowledge, inwards improver to vocabulary size, contribute to successful listening comprehension?
- How much vocabulary is needed for adequate listening comprehension?
The study comprised 115 Danish EFL learners (90 woman someone in addition to 25 male) who were kickoff twelvemonth students of English linguistic communication at the Copenhagen Business School.
The participants were given iii paper-and-pencil tests; a listening comprehension test, a vocabulary size test, in addition to a depth of vocabulary knowledge test. Listening comprehension exam was used to assess the participants’ listening comprehension, a standardized listening exam from the Cambridge certificate of proficiency inwards English linguistic communication (CPE) (2002). Vocabulary levels exam was used to assess the learners’ vocabulary size or breadth of vocabulary knowledge. The depth of vocabulary exam was specifically developed inwards a format similar to the World Associates Test (Read, 1993, 1998).
The iii tests were administered to the participants inwards 1 session.
It is worth noting that the listening comprehension exam appears to possess got an appropriate storey of difficulty for the participants but that it displays a relatively depression reliability coefficient. Given the fact that the listening comprehension exam is a standardized exam administered according to the guidelines provided past times Cambridge ESOL, this storey of reliability may seem rather surprising. However, 1 ground for this depression alpha coefficient mightiness last that the grouping of participants was real homogenous in addition to did non make mush variance inwards the listening scores, which would contribute to a deflation of the reliability estimate.
The results of the study exhibit that larger vocabulary size in addition to to a greater extent than lexical coverage volition atomic number 82 to meliorate comprehension in addition to propose that the human relationship betwixt the 2 is linear. Listening comprehension increases from 54% at the 90% coverage storey (or 2000 vocabulary size level) to 80% at the 99% coverage storey (or 10.000 vocabulary size level), which represents an increment of 26 percent points. It is worth noting inwards item that the results exhibit a greater increment inwards comprehension from 94% to 98% lexical coverage (i.e., from the 3.000 to the 5.000 vocabulary level) than from 90% to 94% lexical coverage (i.e., from the 2000 to the 3000 vocabulary level). This important alter inwards comprehension is non dramatic plenty to propose a vocabulary threshold, but it indicates that receptive knowledge of the most frequent 5.000 give-and-take families, which results inwards a lexical coverage of 98%, led participants to significantly meliorate comprehension.
Given this fact, the results of the introduce study tentatively propose that 5.000 give-and-take families mightiness last a useful vocabulary size target for advanced unusual linguistic communication listeners. However, the storey of lexical coverage required in addition to the vocabulary size needed to make this coverage volition e’er depend on the input text in addition to the storey of comprehension required.
The introduce study reports such an investigation that explored the contribution of depth in addition to breadth of vocabulary knowledge to advanced L2 learners’ listening comprehension inwards English. The study is motivated past times a lack of empirical inquiry on the utilisation of vocabulary knowledge inwards listening comprehension in addition to past times the ensuing require to explore the extent to which dissimilar dimensions of learner’s vocabulary knowledge volition contribute to L2 learners’ listening success.
The results showed that depth in addition to breadth of vocabulary knowledge were highly correlated alongside listening comprehension in addition to together predicted one-half of the variance inwards the listening scores. This important contribution indicates that these dimensions are of import factors for successful listening comprehension inwards English.
These results tentatively propose that receptive vocabulary knowledge is almost as of import for listening as it is for reading, although stronger relationships possess got been found betwixt vocabulary size in addition to reading tests.
Vocabulary Level Test was used to stair out knowledge of the written cast of the word, whereas listening involves recognizing the spoken cast of the word. This mightiness constitute a potential employment given the fact that a give-and-take recognized inwards its written cast volition non necessarily likewise last recognized inwards its spoken form.
It is argued that a study of the human relationship betwixt vocabulary size in addition to listening should last based on a vocabulary exam that involves hearing the target words rather than reading them. However, when this study was carried out, no suitable exam of phonological vocabulary size existed that could last used alongside fairly advanced learners of English. Furthermore, it was decided to utilisation a standardized stair out of vocabulary size that was comparable to other vocabulary studies.
It is hypothesized that the written cast of the words could had a depressing consequence on the correlation betwixt vocabulary size in addition to listening comprehension in addition to that if the study had involved a exam of phonological vocabulary size, it mightiness possess got produced an fifty-fifty higher correlation.
Overall, the introduce study found that larger vocabulary size in addition to to a greater extent than lexica coverage volition atomic number 82 to a higher storey of comprehension. The inquiry is, however, what inwards fact constitutes adequate or acceptable listening comprehension? It is patently impossible to define a generic cutoff grade for adequate comprehension inwards a listening or reading test, but it mightiness last useful to briefly consider before studies past times Laufer (19890 in addition to Hazenberg in addition to Hulstijn (1996), who attempted to determine minimal vocabulary size or lexica coverage requirements for adequate reading comprehension. Laufer ready the cutoff dot for reasonable comprehension at 55% inwards reading comprehension test. In comparison, the hazenberg in addition to Hulstjin study defined the criterion for acceptable for acceptable reading comprehension as the overstep or neglect cutoff of a minimum 70% to overstep inwards a reading test.
The findings of the study betoken that a vocabulary size of 5.000 give-and-take families mightiness last an of import learning destination for advanced learners of English. It is somewhat larger than the estimates for reading suggested past times Laufer (1992) in addition to Hirsh in addition to Nation (1992), which indicates that to a greater extent than vocabulary is needed for text comprehension than previously thought. However, it needs to last recognized that dissimilar criteria for adequate comprehension were applied. Nation (2006) calculated that a vocabulary of 8.000-9.000 give-and-take families is needed for comprehension of written text, whereas a vocabulary of 6.000-7.000 give-and-take families is needed for spoken test. These estimates for coping alongside spoken text seem to last to a greater extent than similar to the results of the introduce study.
The introduce study crucially found that a vocabulary size of 5.000 give-and-take families led to a lexica coverage of 98% inwards the input texts. Given the fact that the 5.000 give-and-take storey mightiness last a adept indicator of adequate comprehension, this is a real interesting result, as it clearly reinforces Hu in addition to Nation’s (2000) findings that text coverage of 98% volition last needed past times most learners to make adequate comprehension. Their results were obtained inwards relation to reading, but Nation argued that a coverage figure similar this mightiness likewise apply to listening. The results from the introduce study betoken that text coverage of 98% mightiness inwards fact last a sufficient coverage for dealing alongside spoken texts.
Apart from the findings on vocabulary size in addition to lexical coverage, the information of the electrical current study revealed that depth of vocabulary knowledge, operationalized through a give-and-take associates test, correlated significantly alongside listening comprehension in addition to could contribute significantly to the prediction of the listening scores. There may last several potential reasons as to why depth of vocabulary knowledge-in improver to breadth- did non brand a to a greater extent than substantial contribution.
On 1 hand, it mightiness last argued that the vocabulary size in addition to depth of vocabulary knowledge measures may possess got tapped into the same dimensions of vocabulary knowledge because both targeted knowledge of give-and-take important in addition to thereby created a partial build overlap. On the other hand, it mightiness likewise last argued that the 2 tests were inwards fact dissimilar plenty to stair out dissimilar constructs because the depth of vocabulary knowledge exam likewise testes knowledge of dissimilar meanings for the same give-and-take as good as knowledge of collocations. The high correlation betwixt the 2 measures does non necessarily hateful that the 2 constructs are identical but may precisely reverberate the fact that the evolution of depth in addition to breadth of vocabulary knowledge is somewhat interdependent in addition to that a someone who knows many words is likewise probable to know much nigh each word.
Because the participants of the electrical current study were advanced EFL learners, this may explicate why the results revealed a high correlation betwixt their breadth in addition to depth of vocabulary knowledge in addition to may partly explicate why depth, inwards improver to breadth, could exclusively predict real footling of the variance inwards the listening scores. However, it is worth noting that Qian (1999, 2002), using similar vocabulary measures, found that depth, inwards improver to vocabulary size, could contribute significantly in addition to rather substantially to the prediction of reading scores, despite a high correlation betwixt the 2 dimensions of vocabulary. This finding mightiness propose that, if the human relationship betwixt vocabulary depth in addition to listening had been strong enough, depth, inwards improver to vocabulary size, would likewise possess got contributed substantially to the variance inwards the listening scores.
The findings of the electrical current study tentatively propose that vocabulary size is the basic constituent inwards listening in addition to make non seem to back upwardly the hypothesis that depth of vocabulary knowledge, inwards improver to vocabulary size, tin pay a split upwardly utilisation inwards listening. However, the results similarly betoken that, to uncover the utilisation of depth inwards listening, to a greater extent than inquiry is needed on the human relationship betwixt breadth in addition to depth of vocabulary knowledge in addition to such investigations should convey into draw concern human relationship dissimilar conceptualizations of depth.
The introduce study has provided empirical evidence of a strong association betwixt L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge in addition to their listening comprehension, in addition to the findings propose that vocabulary size mightiness last a major contributing factor to successful listening comprehension.
The results presented hither possess got straight implications for linguistic communication teaching. The findings describe attending to the require for an explicit focus on expanding learners’ vocabulary size inwards the 2 classroom, to enable them to make a lexical coverage of the input texts of to a greater extent than or less 98%.
However, although this study has found vocabulary knowledge to last an of import factor for listening success inwards EFL past times showing that it tin explicate one-half of the variance inwards the listening scores, it must likewise last acknowledged that a make of other linguistic in addition to nonlinguistic factors contribute to L2 listening success. In improver to an explicit focus on vocabulary learning, it mightiness last useful to learn receptive compensation strategies inwards the L2 classroom as utilisation of developing learners’ strategic competence.
Written past times : Erlyna A.
Student of Islamic University of Malang, Graduate Program