The interconnection inwards double contingency betwixt the individual together with the collective personality of the services
1 Studies of character inwards the electrical current evaluation practice
2 Qualitative indicators for the recognition of the needs of customers together with their personality
3 Indicators of climate together with internal relations at the service (the collective personality)
4 Interconnections inwards double contingency together with saturation database
The rootage essential considerations to play inwards relation to the study of character of services concerning some issues to last answered, namely:
- Quality is historical together with is linked to what a society is going through (the amount of production, the strength, client satisfaction, the analysis of the processes, procedures together with their standardization upward to the character of the reports)
- The continuous improvement inwards services is i aspect of social alter to last interpreted inwards the management of harmonization of relations
- The production of a service, inwards fact, are the social relations the medium is the operator. Operator together with client are ii lives together with ii humanities who run across together with who must empathise inwards their personal identity together with needs inwards affinity with the mission together with vision of the service.
- In guild to assess these problems, non to last self-referential, y’all tin brand utilization of “social reports” (that integrates the private projects for users together with service projects) integrated with the social impact assessment (the ratio of service with the primary networks).
In response to these considerations on the character of social services should last observed every bit models of character assessment inwards wellness services incorporate the enquiry of the human relationship is the model.
1. Control of strategic management – excellence inwards effectiveness together with appropriateness -: management processes together with analysis of the patient
2. Theoretical approach professional: through the perceived character together with continuous improvement (ease of access, hospitality, convenience, timeliness, honour for the personality of the patient together with staff)
3. Perceived character together with satisfaction questionnaires (tree quality)
In these 3 areas organizational together with managerial, technical together with professional person together with humanistic participatory flow studies on:
- Total character together with continuous improvement (quality circles, Deming cycle) Total Quality Management together with Control Quality Improvement
- ISO 9000 The International Organization for Standardization is a worldwide federation of organizations of 130 countries founded inwards 1947 to promote the spread of standards inwards facilitating communication together with exchanges. The acronym ISO also way “equal”; every bit good every bit they take away hold been standardized inwards the same way yesteryear the ISO credit cards, calling cards, etc. It is proposed guidelines to ensure equality of systems together with procedures to compare the processes of production together with evaluation of production quality. But, warns the ISO inwards its official website that: “The standards Which brand upward the ISO 9000 together with ISO 14000 families are amidst the Thousands of voluntary International Standards developed together with published yesteryear ISO … ISO itself does non send out its assessments to Check That standards are beingness Implemented yesteryear users inwards conformity with the requirements of the standards … ISO itself has no potency to command These activities. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 indicate Which logically follows on from the to a higher seat remarks Is that it is imitation to depict a society every bit “ISO-certified”, “ISO-registered”, or to utilization phrases such every bit “ISO certification”, “ISO certificates” together with “ISO registration “… Both ISO 9000 together with ISO 14000 auditing together with certification are the carried out independently of ISO yesteryear certification bodies Under Their ain responsibility.” (www.iso.ch).
- Drawing upward character manuals through the criteria of Responsibility – Management – Design – “Mission” – Improvement.
Studies of character may come about every bit a seat of integration betwixt social together with wellness tending because of the skills that the social sector tin transmit most the production of relational goods.
Studies of character inwards the electrical current evaluation practice
The evaluation is a sociological approach to scientific knowledge that becomes practise of activity together with guidance to facilities that provide services implemented through a survey that evaluates knowledge services together with redirect the action. This physical care for of working itself every bit an “interface” betwixt institutions erogratrici services, people together with customers their worlds of life.
Studies of character displace to a greater extent than frequently than non inwards the difficulty of combining indicators “strong” the construction of the service with the “weak” client satisfaction.
The rootage study: the physical care for (implemented inwards phases through the decomposition of service) – the physical care for (task list, forms used, hateful duration of handling or intervention, protocols, resolutions or reference standards) – the construction of the staff (manager together with operator involved inwards activities, their grooming together with their professionalism) – products (process analysis combined the objectives achieved, productivity) – the effectiveness together with efficiency (cost / effectiveness, toll / utility, toll / do goodness analysis)
The indicate of thought of the client is assessed together with monitored through the character perceived yesteryear the citizens-customers inwards its visible aspects: Easy access – Timeliness – Jurisdiction – Trust – Safety – Appropriateness – Customer orientation together with information (through complaint handling, internal audits, character questionnaires, survey sampling, exam of the management or audits).
The entire analysis is carried out through direct observation of the processes of service delivery supported yesteryear several modules prepared presenting, mixed, indicators of the construction of the service together with client satisfaction, through statistical reprocessing to verify together with suggest the revision of Quality.
The preparation of models for the analysis of character must solve, inwards the conjugation betwixt strong together with weak indicators, 3 problems:
- Can non exclusively do goodness from the experience of character studies experienced companies inwards transforming y’all from “assisted” to “buyer”. This alternative dry out fact requires keen maturity of the “citizen expert” or “competent community”. The alternative (exit) together with vocalisation (voice) citizens, obtained through the provision of “good” that allow the direct purchase of social services, through the resolution of the work of orientation of the user. Users of the assistance are those who to a greater extent than frequently than non take away hold fewer opportunities for evaluation together with alternative of services together with they demand to protect competent. Otherwise the alternative of spending the “good” may depend on mechanisms of dependence or cronyism, or orientation on the set down of occasional impromptu together with non suitable for long-term resolution of problems.
- must last coherence betwixt the views of the professional person or technician with surveys on user satisfaction through innovative methods, simple, “read” together with economic, that volition contribute to the grooming of the operators together with the improvement of their operations, without adding novel handling the paperwork, novel bureaucracy weighing downward their work.
- it is necessary, inwards price of methodology, to integrate qualitative together with quantitative data, indicators of effectiveness / efficiency (system-service) together with indicators index of the client, seat specific indicators for each service category (with a hard comparing betwixt them, too. eg. betwixt populace services together with the 3rd sector)
Examples of character assessment inwards some services (collected inwards the web).
Daycare. Indicators: organizational methods of service, professionalism of the operators, access policies, external communication, organisation together with advertisement of children’s experiences, organizational services, environment, menage unit of measurement participation, activities of private care, the child’s behaviors inwards with lyrics.
Tools: questionnaire to the responsible municipal departments, the questionnaire for the educator referent unmarried frame, tab to the observation of the organisation of the environmental, carte du jour for observing the demeanour of adults together with children.
At the background are accompanied yesteryear other indicators such every bit “non-compliance” than normal choice, the flat of client satisfaction (family) detected through periodic questionnaire together with whatever claims of the families, the satisfaction of internal personnel detected through periodic questionnaire together with interviews, judgment on suppliers expressed numerically according to furnish non-conforming (canteen, maintenance, heating, materials, etc.), the hours of grooming together with the number of actions to improve each year.
Communities for children. Indicators: Structural features (custom spaces, n. Guests per room, safety environments, neighborhood services together with environment, rules of procedure, method of operation), equipment operators (professionals, update, qualification, squad work, coordination, human relationship op / res, supervision), projection characteristics (individual relationships with the child, menage unit of measurement involvement, implication territory, timing together with stages of the project, credence together with resignation), features educational programme (developmental milestones, personal analysis on sleep, nutrition, motor skills, fears, anxieties, self-control, responsibility, human relationship with peers together with adults, emotional needs, honour rules, self-esteem, initiative, reaction to frustration, perseverance inwards the task).
Tools: Observation of the physical care for together with direct observation of the environment, self-declaration of the entities, interview managers, observation of the child, testing compiled yesteryear lower (with evaluation on the comprehensibility of the questions), weekly diary.
Integrated construction of domicile tending together with hospitality for the elderly. Indicators: social participation inwards management, organizational structure, organizational climate together with human relations, planning together with command system, constant search for improvement, checks together with corrective activity for the quality, availability of facilities together with equipment, adequacy together with compliance structures, fiscal self-sufficiency, staff profile, staff training, menage unit of measurement interest together with volunteering, working with individuals together with organizations inwards the area, capacity for analysis of the territory together with its needs, external relations together with communication.
Assessment tools domicile care: survey on working hours, telephone contacts with clients, visits to patients, analysis of the way of life of the clients, interviews to patients together with families on the functioning of the service, assessment of the adequacy of the service inwards connexion with domicile tending service, assessment tools canteen hospitality, service, customization, bathrooms, intimacy, humanization, hotel services, local collective, recreational activities, local together with garden, animation, flexible schedules visits, telephone communications.
For drug addicts. Indicator: Effectiveness of the standards, access policies, stages together with duration of the program, rules of procedure, responsible participation inwards the management structure, internal hierarchy, customization of the program, the physical care for of social reintegration, menage unit of measurement involvement, career guidance, vocational training, human relationship op / res., follow upward on discharged. Tools: talks with the team, analysis of the labor process, coordination, personal folders, methods of meeting, give-and-take cases, supervision, input cards, diary, longitudinal study on the course, climate group, analysis Regulation together with traditions.
Qualitative indicators for the recognition of the needs of customers together with their personality
In these examples, the asymmetry betwixt the information description of the facility together with also client satisfaction, seems completely hanging from the side of the dispensing construction that equips himself through accrediting indicators, also with character checks technical together with professional person trust inwards peer groups.
But the difficulty comparative services, the relative absence of contest because of their scarcity, the presence of traditional models of tending amongst innovative experiences together with addiction services the skills together with social sensitivity of the directors, makes it fifty-fifty to a greater extent than hard to empathise character assessment together with its utilization aimed to change.
Data on client satisfaction, therefore, tin take away hold influence exclusively if defended yesteryear consumer organizations, but, inwards such cases, whatever dissatisfaction with the service tin last ambivalent.
On the i mitt with the excesses of dissatisfaction: the same dissatisfaction with social, personal, relational together with existential, which led these people to last “users” tin limited demands together with overly critical or opportunistic demeanour (overprotective parents Porter h. That oppose the autonomy physical care for triggered yesteryear the service, the TD conflict on substitute drugs..).
With the other excesses of dependence: the attachment to service has made such users clinging to the same emptying the potential constructive comments that could come upward from them.
We together with so arrived at the centre of the work of the character analysis of relational goods produced yesteryear a service. The solution tin non but convey into occupation concern human relationship the psychological together with social aspects of the client’s personality together with size of the collective personality of the service.
Alongside the indicators of effectiveness together with efficiency, which is flanked yesteryear almost all other indicators used inwards traditional character ratings, together with to a greater extent than specific indicators of the target (which relate to the specific sector of the population, defined yesteryear type of problems together with analyze the ‘ fairness, equality together with impartiality evaluated on the set down of equal access, tending together with handling based on the relative severity of the problems) tin last introduced indicators of relatedness studying the human relationship betwixt personality together with PC users of the service, inwards relation to the double contingency.
The model of personality indicators
The subjectivity of the social, client service, it is recognized through the analysis of the needs together with lifestyle (diet, lifestyle together with working conditions), the network of relationships, the expectations towards the service together with its staff attitude. Such investigation needs to last carried out through indicators that discovery his personal “script” inwards relating to others, the set down together with himself.
The ideal-typical dimensions inwards which to collect the types of script touching on the size of:
1) command over oneself together with others (realism, distrust, self),
2) activation (commitment, initiative, responsiveness)
3) detachment (emotional distance, detection, prevalence of mental self)
4) emotional interest (dramatization, effervescent fusion)
5) apathy (lack of motivation resignation)
6) shame (shame discretion inferiority)
7) attachment (affective search of certainties, prevalence of body-self).
The relative strength of each of the dimensions tin last evaluated quantitatively together with ratings of each allow forming a graph polarized, to a greater extent than or less intensely, on i or to a greater extent than dimensions. The ideal types of scripts mentioned are carriers of values (and negative values) depending on their internal residue together with the flat of self-knowledge together with self-acceptance (verifiable with interviews, brusk self-assessment test, self-description of visual sociology using a passport photo, …) together with capacity of a grasp of the empathic experience of others (verifiable through the weight given to staff sensitivity / impressionability, proximity / fusion to the experience of others together with distancing / objectification yesteryear ii degrees the previous process).
The 7 dimensions are the ideal-typical characteristic to stand upward inwards a continuum of transmutation into i another, are non explicitly opposed polar (indeed each has ii reverse dimensions that limit: 1 to 4:05; 2 to 5:06; 3 to half dozen together with 7; four from 7 together with 1; v from 1 together with 2; half dozen from 2 together with 3; 7 from 3 together with 5), are constructed on the set down of the processes of appear of basic emotions together with bring out the dissimilar provisions for participation groups tin last described every bit a leader, opponent, independent, gregarious, opportunistic scapegoating together with mascot.
The ideal types mentioned appear inwards numerous tests, especially those of pedagogy orientation with the price realistic, enterprising, investigative, expressive, formal, social, relational, also inwards relation to the 7 types of word described yesteryear cognitive psychology.
This allows a thought of subjectivity inwards relating to client service together with inwards its interaction with the operators. The systems the recognition of basic attitudes may last those of the personality questionnaire, the analysis of the history of life, the techniques of visual sociology together with equip themselves with the tools of qualitative analysis applied to the customer. On this set down it is possible to seat the effectiveness of access policies together with “customer satisfaction” through the subsequent application of traditional indicators, adding to them the evaluation of the alter of the client together with his physical care for of personal empowerment (self-knowledge , demeanour modification, work solving).
The Definition of the mental attitude of the customer, frequently connected to the nature of its problems, every bit taught yesteryear the categories of psychosomatic medicine or homeopathy, allows y’all to empathise the modulation of its relatedness to the service together with the provision of service to him.
Personality indicators together with processes of social change
The path of tending is intimately related to the physical care for of alter of the client who has taken over from the service side of its features inwards seat but driven yesteryear relationships with operators together with redecision a revision of its attitudes. When this is non done the client becomes a “user” caught inwards a double bind (if evolves loses the protection together with benefits of “assisted”) or drib out (often critical of the service).
One side of the double contingency (the demeanour of service according to the customer’s expectations) invests the entire dispensing construction yesteryear pushing the flexibility together with diversification of taking charge, inwards draw with the potential of the construction inwards price of its resources together with its humanization climate socio-relational interior. Not all facilities may last able to modulate their pc depending on the dissimilar personality of customers, specially every bit long every bit do non travel aware of this need.
To solve the problems of double bond (chronic) together with drib out (abandonment), avoiding typing of institutionalizing role de-motivation together with social piece of work of operators “burned” yesteryear the failures, it is necessary that the margin of tolerance within the double contingency extends progressively to allow tilting of the relational positions, favoring the processes of alter of client (the client behaves every bit expected yesteryear the service). This 2d physical care for is implemented through client participation together with moving the pc of the service on the relational side reverse to that inwards which it was taking charge.
This is the important of “process fine art together with arts and crafts of care” (care) inwards service. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 satisfied client from the indicate of thought of the humanization together with personalization volition last the i that made anxious yesteryear its propensity to control, rootage discovery reassurance together with safety inwards the pc of the service and, later, it volition last directed towards the tranquilization together with tolerance; or i who described inwards a status of passivity together with failure volition initially back upward together with honour for their dignity inwards service but volition afterwards encouraged to convey a to a greater extent than leading role; or i who appearing disoriented yesteryear the turmoil inwards his emotional experiences, from exaltation to anguish, volition discovery agreement at rootage but, later, volition last oriented to convey to a greater extent than responsibility; together with so on downward the processes of alter of each dimension, with all the dissimilar interconnections together with overlaps.
Indicators of the collective personality of the service (social climate, values together with relationships)
The collective personality of the service is determined yesteryear the relational operators betwixt them, from the occupation concern sector inwards which the service is added, the sharing of the mission together with the personal satisfaction together with collective comes from work. Collective personality is a term introduced to brand visible the outcomes of social processes supplementary together with / or disassociate in a social formation.
The advantage point, the analysis of the collective personality, is that studies the interaction of the private personality of the operators. This thought is connected to the known indicators “strong” the character analysis that contextualize the service, inwards human relationship of usual interpenetration with those of the collective personality.
The “indicators” strong “are:
1) those that refer to the sub-sector together with expanse inwards which it is inserted, the processes “aggregations” most the role of the service, the chain of command inwards which it is inserted, with other communications services, to its identity together with its functions, the participation inwards decision-making structures, the presence together with recognition inwards the territory, from which the icon of himself, the specific mightiness together with exercising that mobilizes the economy, to the fiscal structure.
2) The ones mentioned to a higher seat inwards the analysis of quality, which straight concern the specific service together with that is what the organizational structure, the scheme of planning together with control, the availability of facilities together with equipment, quantity together with character of staff, pay together with staffing levels, the profile of personnel, staff training, the amount of meetings, supervisions. Furthermore, the analysis of the organisation (centrality index of the dissimilar positions), the analysis of communication flows (communication bottlenecks, coalitions, diagonal communication, subgroups together with antileader) together with performance analysis.
The indicators of collective personality are aggregated only about some axes that depict the construction of internal relations. Among the rootage relationships betwixt colleagues (detectable through stories or questionnaires that investigate on the contacts betwixt them after work, on their interpersonal ties together with kinship, personal contact, leisure, vacation, phone, etc.), The presence subgroup status, to a greater extent than or less corresponding to the hierarchical lines, the bond of solidarity within the service (verifiable through life stories involving some operator to which they are manifested forms of affection or, resentment), on the history of the nucleus history of the service together with its stability (time serial operators entering together with leaving the service), together with the historical retentivity of the service (counted maintained with the exiles), the reasons for the alter of location or role (burn out or seeking advertisement or personal reasons or family), changes of leadership together with careers, busy staff to replace, on the agreement that the other operators of the piece of work of each, on usual trust together with choices directed toward i or the other individual (effectively the ever-present sociogram Morenian, revisited depending on the type of service). Some of the indicators on the relationships betwixt colleagues are placed on the axes of the collective personality of the collective personality of affiliation or differentiation, other axes of the collective personality conflict or dissolving, others on the collective personality of command or of collective effervescence fusion, typical stage of solid set down nascent structures.
All set down flat manifested yesteryear cyclical fluctuations but the ii models of pc command together with set down flat effervescence demo wavelike perturbations most visible stage of project design / transformation or consolidation that the service lives. The character analysis tin non dispense with that lesson E. Mayo on the modifications of the collective demeanour of a grouping nether observation. For this reconnaissance character analysis must convey into due occupation concern human relationship the impact that the same researchers on the service yesteryear implementing precautions together with guidelines aimed all’imprimere a virtuous management to the effects of their investigation. In price of methodology, every bit nosotros shall see, nosotros are valuable indications of the research-action together with intervention research.
The graph construction that results from the intersection of the characteristics of the specific pc the service is indicative of its specific climate together with relational propensities towards dissimilar attitudes towards customers. The humanization together with personalization of tending are thence non detectable inwards the abstract, every bit if they were interchangeable for every demand of every human being, instead apply every bit necessary relational most effective together with most appreciated yesteryear the client inwards articulating relationships for reassurance, encouragement to ‘operation, information, involvement, tranquilization, back upward together with participation. The ductility together with the mightiness to empathetic agreement of private operators typically disposes them towards the relational seat more fine to the demand but, to orient inwards that the ductility pcs service specification requires that all operators travel aware of such possible arrangements together with are able to intentionally displace towards those congruent. Where inwards fact the overall mental attitude of service is raised inconsistently tin come about a negative outcome on the customer: an intervention of tranquilization most who has strong demand for back upward is inwards fact perceived every bit indifference, the distribution of information to those who demand to tranquilizer is experienced every bit disqualification, the emotional interest to those who demand encouragement is seen every bit attractive or seductive proposal, the proposal of participation or reassurance to those inwards demand of information is perceived every bit manipulation or conditioning.
In this context exclusively the agreement of the way of beingness together with client mix betwixt his needs together with personality of those connected to his specific work tin last arranged to right the collective personality of the service.
At this indicate they tin last taken into occupation concern human relationship together with compared with the graph of pc all indicators that limited the character of the services ordered inwards a designing that interpenetrates strong information (industry or service) with those of pc (A plant nursery has a basic emotional affective determined yesteryear the civilisation manufacture together with the impact with small-scale clients, but it tin arrive at effects of excessive dependence or an excessive sense of separation according to the relational atmosphere within together with procedures adopted; l ‘ interpenetration betwixt procedures together with climate is fundamental to agreement the quality. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 community exists inwards an affiliate scheme that decreases the private differentiation, but, depending on the pc of the construction tin take away hold outcomes of excess of command together with oppression or effective empowerment of customers . Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 domicile tending service for the elderly is a human face upward to human face upward with poor attendance of the operators, the organizational construction of the service tin together with so last transformed into PC exclusive control, burocratizzandosi with outcomes of disruption inwards the furnish of information, integration with other services together with on fourth dimension waiting or, where the propensity to relational operators betwixt them is encouraged, at that spot may last exchanges of of import information to aid y’all effectively respond to client needs).
The ductility of the surface flat together with so the functional processes of alter together with client satisfaction through the physical care for of polarization of the client to the service (the client behaves every bit expected yesteryear the service). This reversal is the 2d horn of double contingency together with occurs when the needs together with client requirements are met at the stage of taking accuse yesteryear the service. The existent satisfaction is inwards fact determined yesteryear 3 clusters of factors: the available relational humanizing, the objective character of service together with the effects on client becomes aware. When an elderly individual feels the affectionate available operators, it decreases its fright of loneliness and, therefore, tin alive ameliorate its natural moments of solitude; when the mental attitude of a nurse is non dictated yesteryear the operational needs of the plant nursery together with and so does non forcefulness the physical care for of weaning the baby, fifty-fifty inwards opposition to the provisions given yesteryear the mother, the kid feels less intense separation anxiety, perceived a reassuring climate together with off with ease his tensions. When a Td warns that his anxiety is empathically understood yesteryear the operator, feels supported together with is already stronger inwards fighting the calls of his addiction.