According to Grondlund (1986) in that location are principles of achievement testing furnish a describe of piece of work solid base of operations for constructing in addition to using classroom exam equally a positives forcefulness inward teaching learning process; (1) Achievement exam should mensurate clearly defined learning outcomes that ear inward harmony alongside instructional objectives.
Achievement exam mensurate the specific type of performance that students are expected to demonstrate at the terminate of learning experience. In guild for the text to almost useful these learning outcomes should endure clearly defined in addition to should faithfully reverberate the instructional objectives of course. This physical care for is such an of import stage of achievement testing that a part of the text chapter volition devoted to a detailed description of how terra firma mensurate learning outcomes. (2) Achievement tests should mensurate a illustration sample of the learning work include inward the instruction. Testing is ever a affair of sampling; nosotros tin never enquire all of the questions nosotros would similar enquire inward test. At the terminate of learning experienced, in that location may endure hundreds of fact in addition to term nosotros exact pupil to know, but because of the fourth dimension available for testing in addition to other considerations, nosotros tin include alone plenty term mensurate a fraction of these fact. (3) Achievement exam should include the type of exam item that are almost appropriate for touchstone the wish learning outcomes. The learning outcomes for a course of report or unit of measurement of report specifies the types of performance nosotros are to convey telephone commutation to effective achievement testing is to lead the almost appropriate type of item in addition to to develop it thence carefully that elicits the wish answer without beingness influences by irrelevant factors. (4) Achievement exam should fit especial uses that volition endure made of the result. As nosotros noted before achievement exam may endure used for a diversity purpose. They may endure used mensurate students’ a) entry demeanour at the commencement of instruction (placement test), b) learning progress during instruction (formative test), c) learning difficulties in addition to their sources during instruction (diagnostic test), in addition to d) full general achievement at the terminate of instruction (summative test). (5) Achievement exam should endure equally reliable equally possible in addition to should in addition to thence endure interpreted alongside the caution. When the purpose of the testing is to depict which learning tasks each pupil tin in addition to cannot perform rather than to rank students inward guild to achievements, the arrive at of the exam score is relevant. In this province of affairs its difficulty is determined yesteryear the difficulty to obtain a spread of scores. Since the traditional; estimated of the exam reliability are based on score constructing reality, special problems are encountered when constructing reliable exam that produce non require score variability. Here nosotros must depend to a greater extent than heavily on matching the exam items equally closely equally possible to the specific learning task, using a sufficient expose of items for each learning work in addition to writing items that clearly all forth the wish behavior. (6) Achievement exam should ameliorate students’ learning. Earlier nosotros pointed out that achievement exam tin assistance inward instructional decision, tin straight influence the students’ learning in addition to tin furnish data concerning teaching effectiveness.
In department nosotros lead keep emphasized those principles of achievement testing that should enchance its value equally a learning device, inward summary, achievement exam volition lead keep the greatest positive influence on learning when they faithfully reverberate the instructional objective, when they mensurate in addition to adequate sample of intended learning outcomes, when they include item type almost appropriate for the learning outcomes, when they adapted to the especial uses to endure made of the result, in addition to when they are designed to yield reliable result.
Nofrianti inward Ubaidillah (2011) states that inward educational activity world, the success of teaching physical care for ordinarily marked yesteryear students’ achievement that is gotten yesteryear students. Students’ achievement has approximately function. They are explained equally bellow.
- Students’ achievement equally character indicator in addition to cognition quantity that lead keep been mastered yesteryear the students.
- Students’ achievement equally satisfied symbol
- Students’ achievement equally data fabric in addition to excogitation inward education.
- Students’ achievement equally an intern and ex-tern indicator from establishment of educational.
- Students’ achievement tin endure indicator for students’ intelligence.
Based on the role of students’ achievement above, it is proven that students’ achievement is really of import because it is non alone equally the success indicator inward the especial subject, but it is too equally feedback for instructor inward teaching learning process.