Speaking English is the main goal of many adult learners. Their personalities play a large role in how quickly intervening Determining Correctly and how they will Accomplish this goal. Those who are risk–takers unafraid of making mistakes will be more talkative Generally, but with many errors that could Become hard-to-break habits. Conservative, shy students may take a long time to speak confidently, but when they do, their English Often contains fewer errors, and they will be proud of Reviews their English ability. It’s a matter of quantity vs. quality, and Neither approach is wrong. However, if the aim of speaking is communication and that does not require perfect English, then it makes sense to Encourage quantity in your classroom. Break the silence and get students communicating with whatever English they can use, correct or not, and selectively address errors that block communication.
Often speaking lessons tie in pronunciation and grammar (Discussed elsewhere in this guide), the which are Necessary for effective oral communication. Or a grammar or reading lesson may incorporate a speaking activity. Either way, your students will need some preparation before the speaking task. This includes introducing the topic and providing a models of the speech they are to produce. A models may not apply to discussion-type activities, in the which case students will need clear and specific instructions about the task to be accomplished. Then the students will practice speaking with the actual activity.
Reviews These activities may include imitating (repeating), answering verbal cues, interactive conversation, or an oral presentation. Most speaking activities inherently practice listening skills as well, such as when one student is given a simple drawing and sits behind another student, facing away. The first must give instructions to the second to reproduce the drawing. The second student Asks questions to clarify unclear instructions, and Neither can look at each other‘s page during the activity. Information gaps are also commonly used for speaking practice, as are surveys, discussions, and role-plays. Speaking activities abound; see the Activities and Further Resources sections of this guide for ideas.
Here are some ideas to keep in mind as you plan your speaking activities.
As much as possible, the contents should be practical and usable in real–life Situations. Avoid too much new vocabulary or grammar, and focus on speaking with the language the students have.
You need to provide feedback and correction NAMAs, but do not interrupt the flow of communication. Take notes while pairs or groups are talking and address problems to the class after the activity without embarrassing the student WHO made the error. You can write the error on the board and ask who can correct it.
Address both interactive fluency and accuracy, striving foremost for communication. Get to know each learner‘s personality and Encourage the quieter ones to take more risks.
Encourage strategies like asking for clarification, paraphrasing, gestures, and initiating (‘hey,’ ‘so,’ ‘by the way’).
If a speaking activity loses steam, you may need to jump into a role-play, ask more discussion questions, clarify your instructions, or stop an activity that is too Difficult or boring.