Pronunciation piece of work has traditionally taken a secondary role inwards linguistic communication didactics to piece of work on grammer in addition to to a greater extent than late lexis.
- Using pupil utter to learn pronunciation
- Word stress
- Vowel sounds
- Weak forms
- Sentence stress
Using pupil utter to learn pronunciation
Pronunciation piece of work tin terminate live kept simple in addition to employ exercises which are both accessible in addition to enjoyable for students, whatever their level. Whenever students do a freer speaking activity, the chief aim is normally for them to develop their spoken fluency inwards the language. However, the action also serves to piece of work on students’ accuracy through the feedback nosotros plough over them on their job of language.
- When my students do such a grouping or pair piece of work action at whatsoever aeroplane I hear inwards in addition to convey notes which are divided into 3 areas of language: pronunciation, grammer in addition to lexis. Within the latter, every bit good every bit unknown lexis I volition also include areas such every bit register, function, laid phrases…and inside the old I volition include notes on whatsoever expanse of pronunciation that leads to miscommunication. This includes diphthongs, vowel sounds (including weak forms), consonant sounds, give-and-take stress in addition to judgement stress. All of these areas tin terminate live dealt alongside speedily in addition to efficiently past times having approximately simple exercises prepare which require cipher to a greater extent than than the board in addition to a basic noesis of the phonemic chart.
- If learners are introduced to the phonemic nautical chart 1 phoneme at a time, it tin terminate live introduced from beginner aeroplane in addition to students are quick to appreciate its value. H5N1 dominion for when ‘ea’ is pronounced /e/ (head) in addition to when it is pronounced /i:/ (bead) volition non necessarily assist production, whereas the activities I suggest hither will. Once your students acquire used to the exercises, pronunciation piece of work becomes fifty-fifty to a greater extent than efficient and, dare I nation it, effective.
Here is a simple exercise I repeat regularly for piece of work on give-and-take stress in addition to private sounds.
- I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: ‘I suppose (pronounced alongside stress on initiatory off syllable) I volition come across her tonight’. The listener doesn’t empathize because of the mispronunciation in addition to asks the other pupil to repeat until finally they write it downwards in addition to nosotros come across what the give-and-take was.
- After the activity, on the board I pose a column alongside ii bubbles to stand upward for give-and-take stress, the initiatory off small, the minute much larger. I write ‘suppose’ nether the bubbles in addition to drill it earlier hollo for students to retrieve of other two-syllable words alongside second-syllable stress.
- I acquire ‘outside’, ‘today’, ‘below’ in addition to ‘behind’, which I convey every bit right earlier hollo for for verbs only. I hence acquire ‘accept’, ‘believe’, ‘forget’….and these croak inwards the same column.
- If a pupil asks for rules during this exercise, inwards this instance ‘Do all 2-syllable verbs receive got this stress pattern?’, for example, I either enquire them to retrieve of examples that contradict their dominion to plough over myself fourth dimension to consider it or I tell them nosotros volition await at rules for this the next lesson. As a full general dominion I notice that this physical care for encourages learner autonomy past times having learners shape their ain hypotheses which are hence confirmed or disproved past times the instructor inwards the next lesson.
I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: ‘Not straight off because he is did (dead)’.
- After the activity, on the board I depict a column alongside the heading /e/. In this column I write the give-and-take ‘dead’ in addition to receive got students repeat it. I hence enquire for examples of words which rhyme alongside this, which students notice slow (‘red’, ‘bed’, etc.).
- I do non write these, however. I hence enquire for words which rhyme in addition to receive got the same vowel spelling, i.e. ‘ea’. I pose students inwards pairs or groups to retrieve of words, giving myself approximately thinking time, too. In this case, depending on the aeroplane I volition acquire ‘head’, ‘bread’, ‘read’, ‘lead’,… in addition to nosotros cease upward alongside an extendable listing of words alongside the same spelling in addition to sound.
- It is the cognitive piece of work of trying to retrieve of similar words, writing them downwards in addition to their organisation into columns that helps learners retain sounds in addition to spellings, rather than their simply revising the lists. This is why all students should live encouraged to re-create the listing into their notebooks.
- If the classroom allows it, it’s also a nifty catch to receive got students pivot posters alongside audio columns upward on the wall in addition to add together to them whenever a novel item comes upward for that sound, peculiarly if it is a foreign or dissimilar spelling.
- The catch is to acquire a basic poster alongside a phoneme at the move past times in addition to diverse columns alongside dissimilar spellings.
I hear an intermediate learner say: ‘I didn’t notice (pronounced / f i: n d /) it anywhere’.
- I brand a column alongside /ai/, drill ‘find’ in addition to my students plough over me ‘fight’, ‘bike’, ‘buy’, ‘eye’,’my’, etc. for the sound.
- I convey these without writing them in addition to hence encourage students to retrieve of other words spelt similar ‘find’. I acquire ‘mind’ in addition to ‘kind’.
- There may live exclusively 1 or ii for whatsoever given pattern. If I receive got catch of whatsoever other words myself I add together them to the column, ensuring that they are non obscure words or likewise high for this detail aeroplane (in this instance I powerfulness select to innovate ‘bind’ in addition to ‘grind’, but likely non ‘rind’ or ‘hind’).
I hear an uncomplicated learner say: ‘I volition purchase vegetables (pronouncing ‘table’ at the end)’. I greenback that this is also an chance to piece of work on give-and-take stress.
- I brand a column alongside a schwa, in addition to drill ‘vegetable’, mark the give-and-take stress.
- With an uncomplicated aeroplane at that spot is a instance for simply didactics this indicate rather than eliciting known words, hence I indicate out the number of syllables in addition to the stress on the initiatory off of the word, explaining that this makes the concluding syllable weak in addition to non pronounced every bit the give-and-take ‘table’.
- I add together to the listing ‘comfortable’ in addition to ‘presentable’ every bit farther examples, but avoid adding to a greater extent than hence every bit non to overwhelm students at this level.
- For the minute instance I indicate out that the stress is on the minute syllable. I tin terminate retrieve of objections teachers receive got made to my suggesting this, such every bit students’ confusion at the lack of a steadfast dominion or the non-uniformity of the examples, for example, but to cater to this only serves to reinforce students’ belief that a linguistic communication ever obeys a strict laid of rules. In my experience this approach is non a useful one. The exclusively way to larn these key pronunciation points is to notice them, greenback them downwards in addition to practice them regularly.
I job fluency drills to piece of work on judgement stress. I hear an intermediate learner say: ‘He told me I couldn’t receive got
a holiday‘ (bold words are stressed). This causes confusion due to the stress existence placed on the incorrect words
inwards the sentence, i.e. the pronouns, or grammer words, every bit opposed to the content words.
- The action is simply a choral drill, but of the whole judgement in addition to maintaining an English linguistic communication rhythm. ‘He told me I couldn’t receive got a holiday‘.
- The play a trick on hither is non to over-exaggerate on the stressed words, but proceed the stress in addition to beat natural. Think inwards price of modelling a rhythm, rather than a stress pattern. Using gesture similar the conductor of an orchestra or tapping on the board to demonstrate the beat is especially helpful for students who cannot hear it easily.
One of the beauties of using pupil speech communication for pronunciation piece of work is that it direct addresses students’ problems. I receive got attempted to furnish a distich of really simple exercises hither to assist teachers integrate pronunciation into their classes on a regular basis. Regular piece of work inwards this expanse helps learners to develop their ain hypotheses in addition to gut-feeling for English linguistic communication pronunciation, something experts in addition to researchers receive got long emphasised every bit an essential science of a goodness linguistic communication learner.