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Dictation Test

Definition of Dictation

In Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (1995:190), dictation agency “being dictated to: passage that is dictated”. In addition, Oller (1979: 39) states that:

Dictation is a chore which requires the processing of temporally constrained sequences of cloth inwards the language, divided upward the flow of spoken communication together with and thence refers downwardly what is heard requires agreement the pregnant of the material”.

From the definition above, nosotros may come upward to a determination that dictation is a form of evidence that non solely challenge students’ curt term retentiveness together with agreement inwards spelling vocabulary but likewise to sympathize the pregnant of what is said. The students are hoped to perceive the contents of the passage together with recognized all the words together with sentences beingness read thence that they are able to seat these aural codes into written symbols.

 is a chore which requires the processing of temporally constrained sequences of cloth i Dictation Test

Dictation is used to evaluate most of the aspects of linguistic communication simultaneously. Its primary purpose is to banking concern fit the proficiency of the students most the linguistic communication beingness learned through their listening ability. It agency that when students produce dictation test, they produce non solely pay attending to the audio of the words read past times the instructor but likewise sympathize most the pregnant together with survive able to transfer the dictated passages to their graphical representations. They are forced to pay a comprehensive attending to the passage dictated together with write downwardly what they perceive past times sound, sight together with feeling inwards the 2nd linguistic communication at the same fourth dimension span allowed for a response inwards the get-go language. Once they neglect to concentrate on their listening, they volition non able to brand quick approximate what they genuinely receive got to write. It is clear implies that dictation is used to assess the students’ ability, inwards this instance listening skill. Teacher hopes that this method of evaluation tin motivate students inwards learning English linguistic communication together with banking concern fit whether the teaching aims receive got been satisfactorily fulfilled or not.

Types of Dictation

In determining the kinds of dictation equally a testing device, the instructor should receive got a await at the cloth provided. To create which form of dictation used, the teacher, equally the examiner should realized the specific betoken to survive gained inwards using each test. As a testing technique, dictation may survive given inwards diverse ways. According to Oller (1979: 264) in that location are 5 types of dictation procedures that receive got been used inwards a multifariousness of ways equally testing techniques. Those 5 ways are elaborated equally follows:

a. Standard dictation
Standard dictation is in all probability the best known. Students are required to write verbal sequences of cloth equally spoken past times a instructor or played dorsum from a recording. The cloth should survive presented at a normal conversational speed together with is given inwards sequences that are long plenty to challenge students’ curt term memory.

b.Partial dictation
Partial dictation likewise called location dictation. This type has a closed relation amongst the measure dictation, but the students are given either a written version of the text or the spoken one. The written version has sure as shooting portions which are deleted. The students must brain to the spoken cloth together with fill upward inwards the missing share inwards the written version. It is easier to perform because to a greater extent than sensory information is given concerning the message; a partial written version together with a consummate spoken version.

c.Dictation amongst competing noise
This type of dictation is rather hard because the cloth is presented amongst adding noise. This form of dictation drills the students to survive used to everyday communication context where linguistic communication is used inwards less than ideal acoustic condition; for example, nosotros are trying to receive got a conversation inwards someone’s living room when the telly together with air conditioner are producing a high degree of competing dissonance or trying to hear a message over a populace address organization inwards a busy air station, etc.

d.Dicto-Comp
This type of dictation is genuinely a combination of ii forms, namely dictation together with composition. Here, the instructor reads the whole passage 3 times together with the students are solely given conduct chances to write their piece of work after the instructor has finished the 3rd reading. They should yell upward the whole story together with write the story equally a reproduction of what they heard.

e. Elicited imitation
In this case, the students brain to the material, but instead of writing downwardly the material, the students are asked to repeat it or otherwise recount what was said.  The status of the class, whether noisy or non volition decide the success or failure inwards administering the physical care for of the dictation test. The instructor should strictly consider the readiness of the students earlier facing the dictation evidence amongst the promise to acquire the evidence successfully. In this study, I used measure dictation inwards collecting the information because I considered that this type of dictation tin survive followed good past times the uncomplicated schoolhouse students.

Materials together with Procedures of Giving Dictation Test

It is of import for the teachers to brand some training when they are going to give a dictation evidence to their students. Oller (1979: 39) stated that, equally an integrative test, dictation has to reckon the naturalness requirements:

a)The sequences of words or phrases to survive dictated are selected from normal prose, or dialogue, or another natural shape of discourse (or peradventure the sequences are carefully contrived to mirror normal discourse, equally inwards well-written function).

b)The cloth is presented orally inwards sequences that are long plenty to challenge the short-term retentiveness of the learners.

Base on those naturalness requirements, it is of import for the teachers to brand some training when they are going to give dictation evidence to their students. There are some requirements that must survive followed, those are:
a)Teachers receive got to select suitable materials to survive dictated.
b)The words dictated should receive got been taught to the students before.
c)The words dictated should survive selected or chosen from simple words.
d)Teachers receive got to select suitable procedures which are appropriated inwards giving dictation test.

There are ii ways of giving dictation test; get-go is the instructor reads the words directly, together with the 2nd is the words dictated receive got been recorded before.

From the requirements above, it is clear that the materials of dictation are whatever unmarried words, chemical compound words, discussion phrases, together with sentences which are going to survive dictated. The instructor tin select the cloth from the majority provided together with used equally reference together with the instructor may occupation a tape recorder equally an aid inwards presenting the test. For uncomplicated students, instructor should select the cloth which tin survive easily done past times students.
Besides preparing the materials, teachers receive got to select suitable procedures which are appropriated inwards giving dictation test. The procedures of the presentation tin survive arranged inwards ii ways; the instructor himself reads the cloth inwards forepart of the shape or uses a tape recorder equally an aid inwards presenting the test. The instructor is required to read the passage 3 times inwards all: first, at normal speed; then, amongst pauses betwixt phrases or natural discussion groups thence that the students may write downwardly what they receive got only heard, together with finally, at normal speed again thence they tin banking concern fit their work.

Advantages together with Disadvantages of Dictation

Dictation has been used inwards linguistic communication learning for several hundred years. However, the occupation of dictation has ever been controversial. It has non ever been looked on amongst favour past times some experts. For example, Lado (1977: 34) says that dictation is favoured past times many teachers together with students both equally a teaching together with testing device, but on critical inspection it appears to mensurate rattling trivial of language. Since the words are given, it does non evidence vocabulary. In line amongst Lado’s sentiment above, Harris (1969: 5) believes that equally a testing device, dictation must survive regarded equally by together with large uneconomical together with imprecise.
Contrary to those ii beliefs above, Davis together with Rinvolucri (1993: 122) establish out that dictation tin survive rattling useful equally a evidence past times which to ascertain the pupil’s progress inwards spelling, punctuation together with pronunciation. They farther stated that dictation is an action which is suitable for a broad attain of levels together with ages. According to them, dictation is an exercise which draws on the personal experience, attitudes together with opinions of what both teachers together with students.

The next are some advantages according to Montalvan (2006):
a).Dictation tin aid develop all 4 linguistic communication skills inwards an integrative way.
b).As students develop their aural comprehension of pregnant likewise of the human relationship amid segments of language, they are learning grammar.
c).Dictation helps to develop short-term memory. Students practise retaining meaningful phrases or whole sentences earlier writing them down.
d).Practice inwards careful listening to dictation volition survive useful afterwards on inwards authorities annotation taking exercises.
e).Correcting dictation tin Pb to oral communication.
f).Dictation tin serve equally an first-class review exercise.
g).Dictation is psychologically powerful together with challenging.
h).Dictation fosters unconscious thinking inwards the novel language.
i).If the students produce well, dictation is motivating.
j).Dictation involves the whole class, no affair how large it is.
k).During together with after the dictation, all the students are active.
l).Correction tin survive done past times the students.
m).Dictation tin survive prepared for mixed mightiness groups.
n).Dictation tin survive prepared for whatever level.
o).The students, equally good equally the teacher, tin acquire instant feedback (if the exercise is corrected immediately).
p).The dictation passage tin (and should) survive completely prepared inwards advance (it likewise tin survive taped).
q).Dictation tin survive administered quite effectively past times an inexperienced teacher.
r).While dictating, the instructor tin movement about, giving private attention.
s).Dictation exercises tin describe the shape together, for example, during those valuable get-go minutes.

APPENDIX
LESSON PLAN

Level of education: Junior High School
Class/Semester: VIII/I
Subject: English
Material: Recount text
Skill: Listening /writing
Time: 1X45 minutes

Standard Competence: 2. Memahami   makna   dalam teks  lisan fungsional dan monolog pendek simpel berbentuk  descriptive dan recount  untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sekitar.
6. Mengungkapkan  makna dalam teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek simpel berbentuk descriptive, dan recount untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sekitar .
Basic competence: 2.2  Merespon makna yang terdapat dalam monolog pendek   simpel secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima  untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sekitar dalam teks berbentuk descriptive dan recount .
6.2 Mengungkapkan makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei pendek simpel dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima  untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sekitar dalam  teks berbentuk descriptive dan recount.

Sub Basic Competence: Recount text
Indicator:
1. Answer the questions
2. Retell the Recount text

Learning Objectives:
1. Students are able to response the questions after listening the Recount text dictated past times the teacher.
2. Students are able to retell the Recount text after dictated past times the teacher.  .
II.Material
Vocabulary
Terrible– money
woke up– finally
breakfast– discover
next– yesterday
missed
My Day

I had a terrible twenty-four sixty minutes menstruum yesterday. First, I woke upward an sixty minutes slowly because my alert clock didn’t acquire off. Then, I was inwards such a hurry that I burned my manus when I was making breakfast. After breakfast, I got dressed thence apace that I forgot to vesture socks.Next, I ran out of the line of piece of work solid trying to acquire the 9:30 bus, but of course of instruction I missed it. I wanted to receive got a taxi, but I didn’t receive got plenty money.Finally, I walked the 3 miles to my schoolhouse solely to honour that it was Sunday! I promise I never receive got a twenty-four sixty minutes menstruum equally the i I had yesterday.

Method
JCOT(Joining Construction of text)

Teaching together with Learning Activity
1. Pre-Activity
-) Morning Greeting
-) Opening the programme past times praying
-) Checking the acquaint list
-) Intermezzo most the material
2. Main-Activity (25 minutes)
-) Teacher dictates the vocabulary related to recount text together with students together with write on their authorities annotation book.
-) Teacher give newspaper to students most recount text together with inquire them to fill upward the blank piece the instructor dictating them.
-) Teacher checks the students task.
-) Teacher gives score to the students
3. Post-Activity (15 minutes)
-) Teacher concludes the material
-) Close programme past times praying together with greeting

Sources:  Developing English linguistic communication Competencies for Grade X
Tools:  paper, board, marker, together with ballpoint.

Scoring :
a.Type of test: Written test
b.Form: Fill inwards the blank
c.Instrument: Students Work Sheet
d.Rubrik: Each expose has 10 scores. The score volition survive a added from each number.

STUDENT WORKSHEET

Level of education: Junior High School
Class/Semester: VIII/I
Subject: English
Material: Recount text
Skill: Listening /writing
Time: 1X45 minutes

Standard Competence: 2. Memahami   makna   dalam teks  lisan fungsional dan monolog pendek simpel berbentuk  descriptive dan recount  untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sekitar.
6. Mengungkapkan  makna dalam teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek simpel berbentuk descriptive, dan recount untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sekitar .
Basic competence: 2.2  Merespon makna yang terdapat dalam monolog pendek   simpel secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima  untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sekitar dalam teks berbentuk descriptive dan recount .
6.2 Mengungkapkan makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei pendek simpel dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar dan berterima  untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sekitar dalam  teks berbentuk descriptive dan recount.

Sub Basic Competence: Recount text

Indicator:
1. Answer the questions
2. Retell the Recount text  

Learning Objectives:
1. Students are able to response the questions after listening the Recount text dictated past times the teacher.
2. Students are able to retell the Recount text after dictated past times the teacher.  .

Material
Vocabulary
Terrible– money
woke up– finally
breakfast– discover
next– yesterday
missed
My Day

I had a terrible twenty-four sixty minutes menstruum yesterday. First, I woke upward an sixty minutes slowly because my alert clock didn’t acquire off. Then, I was inwards such a hurry that I burned my manus when I was making breakfast. After breakfast, I got dressed thence apace that I forgot to vesture socks.Next, I ran out of the line of piece of work solid trying to acquire the 9:30 bus, but of course of instruction I missed it. I wanted to receive got a taxi, but I didn’t receive got plenty money.Finally, I walked the 3 miles to my schoolhouse solely to honour that it was Sunday! I promise I never receive got a twenty-four sixty minutes menstruum equally the i I had yesterday.


Activity1. Listen to your instructor together with fill upward the blank! (English inwards Focus for Grade VIII Junior High School SMP/MTS)
My Day

I had a …………….. twenty-four sixty minutes menstruum yesterday. First, I …………. an sixty minutes slowly because my alert clock didn’t acquire off. Then, I was inwards such a hurry that I burned my manus when I was making breakfast. After ……………., I  got dressed thence apace that I forgot to vesture socks.
……….., I ran out of the line of piece of work solid trying to acquire the 9:30 bus, but of course of instruction I ……………….. it. I wanted to receive got a taxi, but I didn’t receive got plenty ……………….
……………, I walked the 3 miles to my schoolhouse solely to ……………… that it was Sunday! I promise I never receive got a twenty-four sixty minutes menstruum equally the i I had …………………..


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Brown, H. D. 2002. Language Assessment: Principles together with Classroom Practices. San Fransisco: San Fransisco State University Press.

Davis, Paul together with Rinvolucri, Mario. 1993. Dictation-New Methods New Possibilities. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2004. Kurikulum 2004 Standar Kompetensi; Mata pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kelas 4-6 SD dan MI. Jakarta

Harris, P. David. 1969. Testing English linguistic communication equally a Second Language. McGraw- Hill, Inc.

Hornby, AS. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lado, R. 1964. Language Testing. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Madsen, Harold S. 1983. Techniques inwards Testing. New York: Oxford University Press.

Montalvan, Ruth. 2006. Dictation Updated: Guidelines for Teacher-Training Workshops. 

http:/exchanges.state.gov/education/engteaching/dictatn.htm. (Acessed on xiv August 2006)

Nunan, David. 1992. Research Method inwards Language Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Oller, J.W. 1979. Language Test at School. London: Longman.

Baca Juga:   Research Problems In Addition To Objectives Inward Linguistic Communication Learning

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