Here, SEO Anyaran volition acquaint virtually the pregnant virtually Brain as well as Language. What are the interconnection betwixt them? What happens if 1 of them injured? Below is the explanation.
This chapter presents about:
- The survey of the scheme of the human encephalon every bit it pertains to language
- The basic construction as well as surgical operation of the parts of the encephalon used for language.
- The diverse linguistic communication disorders.
- Critical historic menstruation for linguistic communication acquisition.
Introduction of Human Brain
Human existence does non receive got the largest encephalon of whatsoever animal inwards the world. The largest is bluish whale, the average encephalon volume of virtually 9,000 grams (compared to 1,375 grams for human). Human encephalon contains an average of 10 billion neurons, or nervus cells, each of which is linked amongst 1 one 1000 to 10 one 1000 other neurons. The functions of nerve cells is that brand possible thought, perception, communication, as well as other types of mental activity.
Cortex is the exterior surface of the brain. It consists of sparse wrinkled drape of grayness tissue made upward of millions of neurons. The business office of cortex, every bit the layer of the encephalon which represents a relatively recent evolutionary pace inwards neurological evolution as well as is non acquaint a comparable aeroplane inwards whatsoever other species.
The encephalon is divided into:
- Two roughly symmetrical hemispheres (Left as well as Right brains). Left hemisphere has primary responsibleness for language. Right hemisphere, controls visual as well as spatial skills (the perception of non-linguistic sounds as well as musical melodies).
- Two cerebral hemispheres. The largest of which is the corpus callosum.
Both hemispheres of the encephalon are involved inwards command over muscular action every bit good every bit inwards sight as well as hearing. The correct side of the encephalon is responsible for motility of the left arm as well as leg, land the left hemisphere controls the correct arm as well as leg. That’s why individual who suffers impairment to the correct side of the encephalon (as the outcome of a stroke) volition demo paralysis on the left side of the body. The command of 1 side of the trunk past times the contrary side of the encephalon is known every bit contra-lateralization, land lateralization is the localization of cognitive as well as perceptual functions inwards a item hemisphere of the brain.
Brain as well as Language
Paul Pierre Broca (1961, 1965) observed that an surface area inwards the left frontal lobe (Broca’ sec area) appeared to live responsible for the mightiness to speak. He noted that an injury to the left side of the encephalon was much to a greater extent than probable to outcome inwards linguistic communication loss than was an injury to the correct side.
The determination is that the part of the left encephalon that is the crucial to linguistic communication is larger inwards fetuses than is the corresponding part of the correct brain. This asymmetry is maintained throughout life.
The role of the correct brain.
The left encephalon is non dominant for the perception as well as analysis of all types of sounds. The correct encephalon action includes perception as well as production of melodies. Someone who suffered from impairment to the correct hemisphere may live able to empathise the literal pregnant of a judgement but neglect to recognize whether it is spoken inwards an angry or a fearful way.
Coordinating the 2 brains.
Although most people’s linguistic communication centers are localized inwards the left brain, both hemispheres are required for the fully natural utilization of language.
The Language Centers
Here are the linguistic communication centers part:
- Broca’s area is located inwards the front end of part of the left hemisphere as well as is responsible for organizing the articulatory patterns of speech.
- Wernicke, identified a nearby surface area which is side past times side to the part of the cortex that processes reception of auditory input (Wernicke’s area) are every bit good existence key to linguistic communication processing.
- The angular gyrus is the linguistic communication oculus responsible for converting a visual stimulus into an auditory shape as well as vice versa.
Language use; speaking, listening, writing, as well as reading requires the coordination of these linguistic communication centers. If the linguistic communication centers or the connections betwixt them are damaged, the mightiness to utilization linguistic communication deteriorates.
The most unsafe linguistic communication disorders is aphasia. This linguistic communication disorders resulting from encephalon damage. Below are kinds of aphasia.
- Broca’s Aphasia, characteristics; poor articulation, phonemic paraphasia, agrammatism, as well as deficits inwards syntactic knowledge.
- Wernicke’s Aphasia, it is responsible for the representation of meaning, every bit good every bit the interpretation of words during comprehension as well as alternative of words during speech communication production. Patients amongst this linguistic communication disorders may endure from some phonemic paraphasia, but the most striking characteristic of this disorder is an inability to covert spoken linguistic communication as well as to cook meaningful utterances. This linguistic communication disorders brand their speech communication is nonsensical.
- Conduction Aphasia, Damage to the arcuate fasciculus affects transmission of data from Wernicke’s surface area as well as Broca’s area. Characteristics; semantically procedure is non coherent, the comprehension of linguistic communication is impaired. Patients amongst this linguistic communication disorders create non receive got joint problems, because this appear of speech communication is controlled past times broca’s area, which is undamaged. Their mightiness to repeat words as well as sentences, however, is severely impaired.
- Alexia, impairement to reading ability. It sometimes occurs past times itself. An alexic patient may hence live able to write but non to read what he or she has witten.
- Agraphia, loss of the mightiness to write.
The Critical Period Hypothesis
Lenneberge, 1967, proposed that children had exclusively a express number of years during which they could acquired their L1 flawlessly if they suffered encephalon impairment to the linguistic communication areas; encephalon plasticity inwards childhood would permit other areas of the encephalon to accept over the linguistic communication functions of the impairment areas, but beyond a sure enough age, normal linguistic communication would non live possible. This is the Critical Period Hypothesis.
Scnitzer. 1976. The Role of Phonology inwards Linguistic Communication: Some Neurolinguistic Consideration. (Eds) Whitaker, H as well as Whitaker, H., A. New York: Academia Press.
Lenneberg, Eric. 1967. Biological Foundations of Language. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Dennis, H as well as Whitaker, H. “Language Acquisition Following Hemidecortitation: Linguistic Superiority of the Left Over the Right Hemisphere” inwards Brain as well as Language 3: 404-33.
Molfese, D., Freeman, R., as well as Palermo, D., 1975. “The Ontogeny of Brain Lateralization for Speech as well as Nonspeech Stimuli” inwards Brain as well as Language 2: 356-68